With regard to the classification of wires and cables, how many do you know?

There are tens of thousands of types of wire and cable products used in all walks of life. Their total use has two kinds, one is to transmit the electric current, one is to transmit the signal. The most important technical performance indicators of transmission current cables are conductor resistance and pressure resistance; the technical performance indicators of transmission signal cables are transmission performance—characteristic impedance, attenuation and crosstalk. Of course, the transmission signal mainly depends on the current (electromagnetic wave) as a carrier. Now, with the development of science and technology, light waves can be used as a carrier for transmission.
Wire and cable materials
1, copper wire:
The electrolytic copper is used as raw material, and the copper wire made by the continuous casting and rolling process is called low-oxygen copper wire; the copper wire made by the up-draft method is called oxygen-free copper wire.
The oxygen content of the oxygen-free copper wire is 100 to 250 ppm, the copper content is 99.9 to 9.95%, and the conductivity is 100 to 101%. The oxygen-free copper wire has an oxygen content of 4 to 20 ppm, a copper content of 99.96 to 9.99%, and a conductivity of 102%. The specific gravity of copper is 8.89g/cm3.
2, aluminum wire:
Aluminum wires used as wires are annealed and softened. Aluminum wires used for cables generally do not have to be softened. The resistivity of aluminum for wire and cable is required to be 0.028264 Ω.mm2/m, and the specific gravity of aluminum is 2.703 g/cm3.
3, polyvinyl chloride (PVC):
PVC plastic is based on polyvinyl chloride resin, mixed with a variety of ingredients, such as antioxidants, antioxidants, fillers, brighteners, flame retardants, etc., and its density is 1.38 ~ 1.46g/cm3 about.
Characteristics of PVC material: superior mechanical properties, chemical resistance, non-flammability, good weather resistance, good electrical insulation, easy processing.
Disadvantages of PVC materials: There is a large amount of toxic smoke emitted when burning; poor thermal aging performance, PVC Insulation Material and sheathing material are divided.
4, polyethylene (PE):
Polyethylene is produced by the polymerization of refined ethylene. According to density, it can be divided into low density polyethylene (LDPE), medium density polyethylene (MDPE), and high density polyethylene (HDPE).
The density of low density polyethylene is generally 0.91~0.925g/cm3; the density of medium density polyethylene is generally 0.925~0.94g/cm3; the density of high density polyethylene is generally 0.94~0.97g/cm3.
Advantages of polyethylene material: high insulation resistance and voltage resistance; dielectric constant ε and dielectric loss tangent tgδ are small over a wide frequency band; rich in flexibility, good wear resistance; heat aging resistance , low temperature performance and good chemical stability; good water resistance, low moisture absorption; use it for the production of light cables, easy to use. Disadvantages of polyethylene material: easy to burn when exposed to flame; lower softening temperature.
5, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE):
There are mainly two types of cross-linked polyethylene used in the cable industry. One is silane crosslinker, called silane crosslinker, mainly used in the insulating layer of low voltage wire and cable. The other is a cross-linked polyethylene material with dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as a cross-linking agent, which is mainly composed of polyethylene, a cross-linking agent and an antioxidant. Mainly used in the middle and high voltage cable insulation layer, the higher the insulation pressure rating, the higher the purity required.
DCP is a peroxide, and the higher the temperature, the faster the decomposition, and the decomposition of which will catalyze the crosslinking of polyethylene. DCP also decomposes at room temperature, but the decomposition rate is very slow, but heating to a certain temperature (when the temperature exceeds 125°C) will rapidly decompose. Silane crosslinkers also have the same properties, but it also requires water as an aid to complete the grafting reaction. There are two main types of silane cross-linked polyethylene on the market. One is a one-step process and the other is a two-step process (this is different from the academic name for silane cross-linking). The one-step insulation material is pre-mixed with the cross-linking agent and catalyst, and is also called copolymer material. The two-step method is divided into A material and B material. Mix A and B materials before production. The one-step method has a short material storage time. The two-step material is separated from the catalyst material, so the storage time is longer, but the mixed material must be used immediately. In addition, carbon black masterbatch can also be added in the silane cross-linking material to play a role in weather resistance and is used in insulated overhead cable products.
Advantages of cross-linked polyethylene materials: The electrical properties are also superior to polyethylene; its mechanical properties are better than that of polyethylene, so its application is broader than that of polyethylene. The softening temperature is higher than that of PVC, and the normal operating temperature of the cable can reach 90°C. The disadvantages are difficult processing and burning.
In general, cables can be divided into six categories:
(1) Bare wire
Bare wire and bare conductor products refer to non-insulated, non-sheathed conductive wires, including bare single wires, bare strands, and profiles.
Copper and aluminum single wire: including soft copper single wire, hard copper single wire, soft aluminum single wire, hard aluminum single wire. Mainly used as a variety of wire and cable semi-finished products, a small amount for the production of communications wire and electrical appliances.
Stranded bare wires: including hard copper stranded wire (TJ), hard aluminum stranded wire (LJ), aluminum alloy stranded wire (LHAJ), steel-cored aluminum stranded wire (LGJ) is mainly used for the connection of electrical equipment and electronic appliances or components The specifications of the above strands range from 1.0-300mm2.
(2) Overhead insulated cables
Overhead cables are also common, and they are characterized by no jackets. Many people have three misunderstandings about this kind of cable, and the pie is corrected here.
First, its conductor is not only aluminum, but also copper conductor (JKYJ, JKV), aluminum alloy (JKLHYJ). There is also an aluminum stranded steel overhead cable (JKLGY).
Second, it is not only single-core, it is common to be single-core, but it can also be twisted with several conductors to form a bundle.
Third, the voltage level of overhead cables is 35KV and below, not 1KV and 10KV.
(3) Power cable
Power Cables Cable products used to transmit and distribute high-power electrical power in the trunk lines of power systems, including power cables of various voltage classes of 1 to 330 kV and above, and various types of insulation.
Sections are 1.5, 2.5, 4, 6, 10, 16, 25, 35, 50, 70, 95, 120, 150, 240, 300, 400, 500, 630, 800mm2. The number of cores is 1, 2, 3, 4 , 5, 3 + 1, 3 + 2 cores.
Power cables are divided into low-voltage cables, medium-voltage cables, and high-voltage cables according to voltage levels. Divided into plastic insulated cables, rubber insulated cables, mineral insulated cables, etc. according to insulation.
Power cable is our most common, its specifications and models are not written here, we can refer to "basis 2: cable specifications and models do not know clearly".
(4) Control cable
This kind of cable structure and power cable are similar, the characteristic is only the copper core, there is no aluminum core cable, the conductor cross section is smaller, the core number is more, such as 24*1.5, 30*2.5...
It is applicable to stand-alone control or unit equipment control of AC rated voltage 450/750V and below, power station, substation, mine, petrochemical enterprise, etc. In order to improve the ability of the control signal cable to prevent internal and external interference, measures are mainly taken to set up shielding layers.
Common models are KVV, KYJV, KYJV22, KVV22, KVVP. Model meaning: "K" control cable type, "V" PVC insulation, "YJ" cross-linked polyethylene insulation, "V" PVC sheath, "P" copper wire shield.
For the shielding layer, the common KVVP is a copper wire shield. If it is a copper tape shield, it means KVVP2. If it is an aluminum plastic composite tape shield, it means KVVP3. For different materials, the shielding layer has its own characteristics and functions.
(5) Fabric wire
Mainly used for home and distribution cabinets, friends who open the hardware store are most familiar with, often said BV line belongs to the cloth wire. Models are BV, BLV, BVR, RVV, RVVP, BVVB, etc...
For this "B", the pie wants to chat a few words. In the wire and cable model representation, we often see this B. Different places have different meanings.
Take BVVB, the beginning of B is the meaning of the wire, it is the application of the cable classification, just like JK said overhead cable, K is the same as the control cable. The flat type represented by B at the end is an additional special requirement for the cable. The meaning of BVVB is: copper core PVC insulated PVC sheathed flat cable.
(6) Special cables
Special cables are special-purpose cables, which mainly include flame-retardant cables (ZR), low-smoke halogen-free cables (WDZ), fire-resistant cables (NH), explosion-proof cables (FB), rodent-proof cables, termite-resistant cables (FS), and resistors. Water cable (ZS) and so on.
Flame-retardant cable (ZR), low-smoke halogen-free cable (WDZ): Mainly applicable to important power and control systems. When the line is in the event of a fire, the cable can only be burned under the effect of an external flame, the amount of smoke is small, and the harmful gas (halogen) in the smoke is also small.
When the external flame disappears, the cable can also extinguish on its own, minimizing the loss of human and property damage caused by the fire. Therefore, this kind of cable is widely used in petrochemical, electric power, metallurgy, high-rise buildings and densely populated and other important places.
Fire Resistant Cable (NH): Mainly applicable to particularly important power and control systems. When the line is in the event of a fire, the fire-resistant cable can withstand temperatures of 750~800°C for more than 90 minutes to ensure safe power transmission to win sufficient time for fire extinguishing and mitigation.
In the face of special occasions, new products such as fire-resistant cables, fire-retardant cables, low-smoke halogen-free/low-smoke and low-halogen cables, termite/mouse-resistant cables, oil/cold resistance, temperature resistance, and wear resistance lines are continuously derived. Cables, irradiation cross-linked cables, etc.

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